Thursday, December 8, 2011

Stairway to Scope Creep

On a personal note, everyone has experienced coping with change.  Whether you were the cause of the changes or on the receiving end of the changes, scope creep is a natural trait of people to make improvements in their desired outcomes. Having been on the receiving end of changes on corporate work projects, it is interesting to find myself being the cause of scope creep on my home improvement project.  “Scope creep is a tendency of the client as well as project team members to try making improvements as the project progresses” (Portny, 2008).

It started out with an idea to finish my basement of my home from an unfinished area into extra living space for a family entertainment room.  A co-worker gave me a name of a free-lance contractor that had his own small business that did quality work inexpensively and this would work will on a small project.  The statement of work (SOW) started out with simple dry walling project in the basement area.  The client (me) and contractor (vendor) both signed a contract agreement on a set cost for the follow project deliverables.

• Install insulation 
• Dry Wall (1000 sq. ft. area)
• Finish and paint walls
• Cover and finish support basement beams
• Install two dry walls to section off furnace area, add two doorway entrances with doors, and install shelving to convert this area into a storage room
• Install drop ceiling
• Install receding ceiling lights
• Install one stairway light
• Install additional heating and cooling vents
• Install tile flooring
• Install enforcement beams to hang up flat screen TV on the wall
• Install more shelf’s  under stairway for extra storage space

After the project began to progress, I started to change my mind.  First change, I did not like the idea of the stairway being steep going down to the basement.  I decided to move the kitchen pantry closet over about ten feet to reroute the steps over to give it a more open look and free then completely removing the original stairs to reroute the steps into a curve shape to make them less steep.  Of course this is out of scope, the client (me) and the contractor (vendor) had to negotiate the original costs plus increase in labor, time and additional materials.

Now this week armed with more photos after searching on the Internet of beautiful stairways already heading over my budget plans, I want the stairway to have small flushed accent lights running down parallel with the steps on the opposite side of the stair rails at the lower bottom of steps and instead of traditional wood railings I want copper iron accent rails with decorate ending s-shaped rails at shown in the photo.    The contractor informed me today this would involve even more time and higher material costs because this type of railing and iron shoes for placement. 

Wait, I am not done with my scope creep story! 

As construction is beginning to progress smoothly with changes,  now I am thinking the sliding patio door blinds next to the relocated pantry closet and the kitchen area ceiling light fixture should to be replaced to match the new design layout.  At this point dealing with a client like me as the contractor's project manager, I would be pulling out my hair.  Can’t this client make up their mind; it is like a moving target always wanting something different.  I am sure as project managers we have all been there at some point in our careers and personal life when working on a project with scope creep people like I have become on my personal home improvement project. 

What is the best approach to deal with expected project changes from clients like me that just can't make up their mind?  

At the initial start of a project, set a clearly defined change control system in place for the client and vendor.  A change control system will do the following (Portney, p.346,  2008).

• Helps to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the requested changes.
• Identify all impacts of changes on the project timeline and budget.
• Can help to identify alternative changes that will accomplish the same outcomes without major impact on the project.
• Acts as a communication method to accept changes for all parties involved.
• Ensure the changes were preformed correctly according to the change request.

Avoiding scope creep is not possible but monitoring and controlling these changes will be beneficial for both parties involved to reduce misunderstanding.

-Mary Layne


Portny, S. E., Mantel, S. J., Meredith, J. R., Shafer, S. M., Sutton, M. M., & Kramer, B. E. (2008). Project management: Planning, scheduling, and controlling projects. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Thursday, December 1, 2011

Estimating Costs and Allocating Resources

Instructional design project managers may sometimes feel like they are performing a juggling act balancing all key elements of a project at the same time. 

Resources:  Workers, software tools and learning materials.
Time:  Task durations and dependencies and critical paths.
Money:  Budget costs, training budgets and profits.
Scope:  Size of Project, learning goals and requirements.

”It is absolutely imperative that project managers understand any changes to the project will have a dynamic effect on budgets, either time or resources” (Reh, 2011). While there is no magic formula for managing a budget, the 80/20 rule can help ID project managers become more effective. “Project managers know that 20% of the projects work (first 10% and the last 10%) will consume 80% of your time and resources” (Reh, 2011).

Actually, this 80/20 rule can be applied to almost anything you deal with in life. This rule helps to remind us about focusing on 20% of what matters throughout our daily tasks as project managers.  Instead of wasting time on 80% of your time and energy on things that do not matter, concentrate on the 20% that is really important on the project.

Remember, if your project runs off track and over-budget the project will not be considered successful even if it meets the needs of end users.  This is why project managers need to carefully manage and control their budgets. There are four strategies that will help project manager maintain control of your project’s budget to prevent massive cost overruns (Westland, 2011). Most important, project managers need to put aside 20% of the project’s budget aside into a reserve back-up fund in case of unexpected circumstances because they’re a lot of unknown factors that can create variances and control changes within a project’s budget.

1. Monitor your budget- A project can start heading out of control quickly without frequent oversight you would not be able to see if the budget is starting to head in the wrong direction.  It is easier to manage a project that is going 10% over budget then letting it get out of hand trying to correct it later in the project phases with a 50% overrun.

2. Watch your resource usage- The work staff can contribute to much of your project’s budget so it is important to keep track of the number of people currently working on a project, as the project moves though phases less or more people will be needed to complete project tasks. Project managers should review the number of people currently working on a project and the project's future resource needs regularly to help keep your project budget on track.

3. Keep team members informed- By informing the team is to empower your team to become more involved and take ownership as part of the project. Keeping the team informed about the budget status, will help them watch their project charges and they will be less likely to waste unnecessary extra time and man hours.

4. Keep an eye out for scope creep- This is a leading cause of project budget overruns. “As unplanned work finds its way into your project, billable hours mount and the project budget can get out of control” (Westland, 2011). Project managers must carefully manage changes that were not part of the project’s initial budgeting requirements. Project change control will need further authorization for additional project funding to cover the cost of extra time and work.

A projects budget is a living piece of a project, something instructional design project managers must review with their teams and their stakeholders on a regular basis. By keeping a watchful eye on the project budget will keep both stakeholders and management happier because it is critical to building a strong foundation for the project.

-Mary Layne

Reh, J. (2011). Project Management 101  Part 1: Basic Project Mnagement Outline. Retrieved December 1, 2011 from
Westland, J. (2011). Project Management: Four Ways to Manage Your Budget. Retrieved December 1, 2011 from

Thursday, November 17, 2011

Art of Effective Communication

After viewing this week's multimedia program "The Art of Effective Communication", I observed how the same message comes across delivered using three different forms of communication methods: email, voice mail and face-to-face. It is interesting to observe how I responded when reading, hearing and watching a video of a person demonstrating the exact same message. Reflecting on this week's topic, how should a project manager communicate on a project with their team members and is one method better than others?

The art of effective communication is sending and receiving messages that cannot be distorted or misinterpreted by the receiver (ELC, 2011). The key to choosing the correct method of communication is to first consider the type of context and purpose of the message. Your method of delivery must fit the circumstances for the message including the needs of both sender and receiver.

Communication can be more effective at certain project tasks than other, emails are great for schedule and confirming team meetings, quick questions and conversation that require a two-way conversation are good with a phone call or voice mail, face-to-face communication is best for meetings that require a discussion that requires dialogue and consensus from an individual or team member (Martin, 2007).

Commonly, misunderstood communication among team members can cause projects valuable resources such as wasted time and hours to rework tasks. Emails are extremely important on projects because you have a paper trail of the communication while “having personal face-to-face conversations can connect team work that builds trust and minimizes misinterpretation and misunderstanding” (Martin, 2007).

Email and voicemail are both asynchronous forms of communication that do not require both communicators to be present (Duthler, 2006). Communicating by email allows the sender to plan, compose, edit, and review before clicking send on a computer screen. Voicemail, in contrast allows the communicator to plan their message in advance with the option to delete the message and record it before pressing send on the telephone pad. While both forms of communication are asynchronous, voicemail and phone call are good for conversations that require two-way communication. This form of communication individuals can manage their speech vocal tone, rate, pitch, loudness, pauses, inflection, pronunciation in their delivery of content (Duthler, 2006).

In a recent survey poll by VitalSmarts, a corporate training company more than 87 percent of participants admit using hi-tech communication to resolve a workplace confrontation has not been effective in their experience, 89 percent say e-mail, text messaging and voice mail can get in the way of good workplace relationships (Patterson, 2007).  Overall, there is no one type of communication that works best on a project.

As project managers it is important to choose the correct method at the right time by considering the context and purpose of the correspondence. According to my research there is no one method better than others but a paper trail is always important for a project manager to back up their correspondence message. With work overload, I have found many team members do read every email in their inbox word-by-word plus find the time to meet with the project manager in person. However, to assure critical project information is understood correctly project managers should follow-up.  First, send an email to document the conversation then follow-up with another type of communication.  If it pertains to the entire team and is appropriate discuss the topic at a team meeting or address the team member personally face-to-face, make a phone call or leave a voicemail message to assure the communication is clearly understood.
-Mary Layne


Duthler, W. (2006). The Politeness of Requests Made Via Email and Voicemail: Support for the Hyperpersonal Model. Department of Communication Studies, University of North Carolina Retrieved November 17, 2011 from

Laureate Education, Inc. (n.d.). Communicating with Stakeholders [Video A]. Laureate Education, Inc. [Producer]. Retrieved from

Laureate Education, Inc. (n.d.). Project Management Concerns: Communication Strategies and Organizational Culture [Video B]. Laureate Education, Inc. [Producer]. Retrieved from

Martin, C. (2007). The Importance of Face-to-Face Communication at Work. CIO. Retrieved November 17, 2011 from

ELC. (2011). Introduction to Written Communication:   Some Basic Principles. Retrieved November 17, 2011 from

Wednesday, November 2, 2011

Project Lessons Learned: “Post-Mortem”

Just Say No!

The re-engineering software project that will be analyzed in this article is a State Government three year project to restructure multi-legacy systems into a single web-based system for easier access, user-friendly computer system. The goal of the project is to reduce user input by sharing data intelligence from other state agencies and departments to build a smart computer system that would improve work productivity across applications to share vital information.

Almost everyone has worked on a project that has made mistakes, wishing the team had done it differently. It is extremely important at the end of a project to look back to share the lessons learned among the team members, so these mistakes do not get repeated in the next projects (Greer, 2010). To learn from what did we do right and where did we get off track?

It is recommended after project completion the project manager prepares open ended questions for team members to get their initial feedback; in addition allowing individuals to respond back with ideas and suggestions how they would have done it differently. Project managers should structure these post-mortem questions per the project phases to help team members focus and narrow down their answers instead of trying to recall all of the issues for the entire life cycle of the project (Greer, 2010).

Phase 1: Determine Need and Feasibility
The State Government project goals and reasons behind replacing their legacy systems was highly justified. Replacing old green screen terminals with a new GUI Web interface will give the application a new modern feel that users are familiar with requiring less software training time. Green screens use computer keyboard function keys which is something that most end-users are not familiar with compared to web-based features using graphical screen interfaces such as Web 2.0 click-thru elements for navigation, buttons and other features that gives the application a new, modern Internet site look and feel. In addition, moving towards a service-oriented architecture (SOA) will not lock system applications into an architecture that cannot be expanded and supported in the future.

Out of date technology is difficult to maintain and support with IT staffing because younger programmers today are taught in colleges current coding such as Java or not legacy coding such as COBAL or FORTRAN. So as baby boomer coders retire there will be fewer programmers to support legacy systems in the future. The need and feasibility of the State Government project was valid. The project’s problem-solution strategy during the analyst phase was successful it was considered to be a cost-effective solution that would improve the overall quality and reduce the complexity of the state’s application systems.

Phase 2: Create Project Plan
To ensure the success of a project is absolutely dependent on the project plan details (Portny, 2008). Looking back and being it was my first time on a multi-million dollar project, the State Government project showed early signs of potential problems that occurred later on during the scope of the project. When stakes are high and the project is extremely difficult and complex, many times inexperienced project manager will spend time on something unnecessary, instead of spending adequate time on planning, monitoring and controlling the project. “It is precisely why high stake projects desperately need a mature project manager who realizes the importance of creating effective planning-monitoring-controlling processes” (Portny, 2008).

The first sign of problems in this project started in the beginning of phase 2 when the initial project manager was let go because of difficulties working with key management stakeholders. To immediately fill the void, the consulting company moved an IT manager with no prior project management skills background to fill the vacant PM position. It was a disaster waiting to happen, using an amateur person to fill the role of a knowledgeable project manager to gamble with the high stakes of corporate financial resources and investment with the high risk of losses.

Phase 3: Create Specifications for Deliverables
Sometimes the original project plan deliverables are not enough to jumpstart a project because they are too vague and unclear. This will cause a project currently in progress to lose focus on what should be and what should not be included in the deliverables, causing project teams working across multi-localities to get off track. To get back on track, project managers should consider revising the original project plan, announce to stakeholders of changes, inform team members of a new direction the project will take and track performance very closely (Portny, 2008). The failure in this State Government project was not taking the first step toward fixing the initial small problems of deliverables in the beginning phase before they escalated into larger out of control unmanageable obstacles.

Phase 4: Create Deliverables
Towards the beginning of phase 2 and 3 the project was already heading towards the edge of the road but in phase 4, the project literally ran off the mountain cliff. Scope creep was now out of control with business stakeholders demanding extra deliverables and there were no clear project plan constraints, limitations to control all of the vendors and stakeholders changes of project deliverables. Of course, clients want more enhancements without paying for extra resources. Statistics of post-mortem reports from more than 500 project managers regarding the single most important challenging problem a PM will face is coping with project changes making it the top issue (Portny, 2008, p.346). After discovering new technologies or missing business requirements that become apparent during the project discovery will cause change control. In fact, the later these changes are discovered during the scope of the project, the more difficult and costly they will become due to delays, missed timelines raising the cost of the project.

Unfortunately the biggest mistake in this project was an inexperienced project manager that avoided dealing with Government contract bureaucracy. Instead, he tried to handle the request for changes informally without a change control system in place. Which finally drove the project off the mountain cliff into the ditch, causing the consulting firm to get fired and cut from the Government project due to breach of contract. Not only did the project manager lose his job, so did the entire 40 team members. Failure of change control not only cost employees their jobs but left the consulting firm with huge financial losses and a bad repetition as a preferred Government contractor.

Phase 5: Test and Implement Deliverables
In the perfect world, all project deliverables would move seamlessly with no problems but in the real world this never happens. In this case, the mentioned State Government project’s consulting firm never made into phase 5, due to scope creep. According to Portny, project managers often learn by doing. Sometimes it may take several projects to fine tune their skillsets. It is advisable for new project managers to take on smaller projects to learn from their successes and failures before jumping into large-scale complex projects.

What did we learn today that can translate to tomorrow’s projects? Excellent analyst strategies to gather business requirements for forecasting client’s future needs are essential for the initial success of the project. On the other hand, the project can run out of control quickly and it takes an experienced skilled project manager to handle obstacles to avoid scope creep. Finally, project managers need a clear change control system in place and set limitations. A project manager needs to have effective communication skills to stand up and be able to “just say no” to the client by setting clear written limitations in the project plan what is and what is not deliverables.

-Mary Layne


Greer, M. (2010). The project management minimalist: Just enough PM to rock your projects! (Laureate custom ed.). Baltimore: Laureate Education, Inc.

Portny, S. E., Mantel, S. J., Meredith, J. R., Shafer, S. M., Sutton, M. M., & Kramer, B. E. (2008). Project management: Planning, scheduling, and controlling projects. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.